Neuroimmunological diagnostics has accelerated incredibly in recent years, thanks to identifying many antibodies directed against neuronal and glial proteins, which represent fundamental markers for diagnosing neurological autoimmune diseases. In these diseases, which may include autoimmune encephalitis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, syndromes associated with anti-MOG antibodies, and myasthenia gravis, among others, antibodies may also have pathogenetic relevance, justifying the use of drugs immunosuppressants that block its production or function capable of leading to significant clinical improvements.

The relevance of antibodies in identifying diseases that can be treated with specific therapeutic procedures has placed enormous pressure on neuroimmunology laboratories, which are required to provide maximum diagnostic accuracy.

Furthermore, the introduction of numerous increasingly complex tests has made the laboratory’s activity increasingly complex. In this scenario, the difficulties connected to the choice of the ideal test and the possible interpretation of these tests pose a risk to performances and standardization between laboratories.